Sigmund Freud was most known for his five-stage theory of human development. This theory originated in the study and thorough documentation of his adult memories of memories in therapy sessions and was conceptualized by Sigmund Freud himself. Freud began working in 1880 and end in 1890, his theory began to take on a more formal features five levels. The theory was the answer mainly patients with hysterical symptoms were reported sexual damage that occurred early in their lives and subsequent repression or subconscious “pushing away”, these sexual trauma and other uncomfortable thoughts of previous experience. Although a comprehensive review of all the underlying assumptions regarding the Freudian theory of personality theory and the massive amount of information that he wrote during his lifetime that would be almost impossible to sum up, even over many years are far beyond the scope of this project, some of the main criteria will be discussed. However, with regard to the overall knowledge base to the benefit of greater understanding of the five-stage theory, it is my opinion that before the discussion on stage his theory of personality development, it is necessary to his theory of the division of mind and part of his personality are named as these two basic concepts are intricately intertwined with a five-stage theory of his.
A key concept underlying premise Freudian theory Subdivider human mind in three different categories. According to his theory, part of the mind are conscious, pre-conscious and sub-conscious region (Freud, 2002 revised ed.). As implied by the title, the conscious mind consists of these things that we are now aware and we are now attentive. The conscious mind is also the current process of our thinking, behavior and environmental awareness. Therefore, it can be clearly concluded that the conscious mind forms the bulk of our current knowledge. This concept can be confirmed that most people have, sometimes, heard statements from others such as “I am a pure consciousness,” or “I was not aware of that at the time”, in casual conversations. Also according to the Theory Freud, the preconscious mind consisted of all the things that we are aware of, but now do not pay attention (Freud, 2002 revised ed.). He conceived rather that we can choose to pay attention to this and deliberately bring them into the conscious mind. Finally, with regard to the pre-conscious mind, Freud believed that we can control our consciousness to a certain extent, the focus very closely on a conscious act of a wider awareness that seeks to raise awareness to include as much of the preconscious information possible . At a subconscious level, the methods and materials are out of direct reach the conscious mind. The subconscious thinks like this and works independently (Freud, 2002 revised ed.). One of the main conclusions Freud was much behavior is driven directly from the subconscious mind. This has dire consequences that we are largely unable to control our behavior, and in particular we would sometimes prefer to avoid. Recent studies have shown that the subconscious mind is probably even more in charge of our actions but even Freud had realized Murphy, 2001).
three major factors of personality were included in a massive, general theory of Freud. These factors are Id, Ego and Super itself. The Id contains primitive our plates and operates largely under the pleasure principle, where two of its main targets are looking for pleasure and avoid pain (Freud, 1962). Freud goes on to say that it has no real perception of reality and seek to satisfy their needs with what he called the key processes controlling the presence of infants, including hunger and self-protection. Unlike identity Ego is aware of the reality and operates with the reality principle. The reality principle involves Ego recognizes what is real and understand that behavior has consequences. This includes the effect of social rules that are necessary to live and socialize with other people. It uses secondary processes such as perception, recognition, judgment and memory are developed in childhood. The problem of the Ego is that it has to somehow balance the demands of Id and Super itself with the constraints of reality (Freud, 1962). The Ego board higher mental processes such as reasoning and problem solving, which he uses to solve Id-Super Ego problem, creatively find ways to safely meet the ID’s basic urges within the limits of Super itself. The Super Ego contains our values and social ethics, which often comes from the rules of right and wrong that we learned in childhood from our parents and is in the conscience. The Super Ego has a model of the ideal self that he uses as a prototype that will be used to compare ourselves and the direction in which it promotes itself to move. The Super Ego is a counterweight to the identification and seeks to inhibit pleasures requirements of the child, particularly in terms of sex and aggression.
Now we turn to what is the most famous aspect of Freud’s theory, the five stages of human development. This theory sprung from the observations of Freud’s memories of adults in treatment in his life (Freud, 2003 revised ed.). He said this work the children were not directly observed. Although Freud’s theory has been roundly criticized for the lack of a scientific nature, it is, however, stand as a big metaphor to describe personality. Stages of development include Oral Stage which is the first stage. This stage begins at birth and usually ends up with approximately 2 years. In the oral stage, infants and young children explore the world primarily through their most vulnerable areas, namely his mouth. They also learn to use their mouths to communicate. The next stage is Anal Stage. This stage usually begins around 2 years and last about a year. In the anal stage, children learn to control the elimination of bodily waste. The phallic stage is the next level. It usually starts around 3 years and last until 5 years The phallic stage is probably the most controversial of all levels due to the strong sexual underlying principles with regard to the opposing parents early in life. To further explain, the controversy comes from the description of Freud’s Oedipus and Electra complexes, with the associated ideas of castration anxiety and penis envy, respectively. The Oedipus Complex a sexual attraction of a son to his mother while Electra Complex implies just the opposite. Those complexes lead, according to Freudian theory, the normal differentiation of male and female personality. The defense suppression was invoked to explain why no one could remember the events of this level. At this stage, Freud also theorizes that children discover their differences and sexual inequality. The phallic stage is followed by a waiting period where little new development is evident. At this stage, boys play with boys and girls with girls, usually. Sexual interest is low or absent. The final stage is Genital Stage. It started around 12 years of age and ending with a climax puberty. Sexual interests again raise at this time. However, the sexual interests that bring about this season are appropriate and rest genuine partners rather than the opposite parents.
It is my assertion that the arbitrary and somewhat capricious nature can easily be concluded from the theoretical framework Freud. As it did with me, the importance of departments mind and basic aspects of personality decision-making process and appropriate progression through each stage of development should also light. To further explain how the awareness of self and environment should be proportionate to the successful transition from birth to adulthood. Earlier in life that awareness begins should also increase the likelihood of successful development of personality. Freudian assumptions about social activities are not clear, but it does appear that firm understanding of the basic concepts of his would be very useful to have when working in applied social environment. That is to say, with regard to applications in real social situations, for example, it would be advantageous to know whether a person has successfully developed and function as an adult, if they have a keen sense of awareness or oppression recent memories are factors. I truly believe that the above programs are also key strengths Freudian theory. As previously mentioned, work Freud was so high that it is difficult, albeit not impossible, to determine its efficacy in most cases. As I see it is that in most cases, Freud failed. While it is not possible to accurately or adequately quantified compared to applied behavior analysis, for example, it appears that the application of his ideas could be useful to most anyone.
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC
Freud, S. (1962). The Ego and the Id (The Standard Edition of the complete works of Psychological Sigmund Freud). New York, New York. W.W. Norton and Company
Freud, S. (2002 revised ed.). Three Essays on the Theory of sexuality. NY, New York: Basic Books
Freud, S. (2003 revised ed.). Overview of psychoanalysis. NY, New York: Penguin Classics
Murphy, Joseph (2001). The power of the subconscious mind. NY, New York: Bantam